In recent years, the area of facility horticulture in China has developed rapidly, and the lighting technology of light environment control for plant growth has attracted attention. Facility horticultural lighting technology is mainly used in two aspects: LED plant growth lights are used as supplementary lighting for plant photosynthesis when the amount of sunlight is low or the sunshine time is short; LED plant growth lights are used as induction lighting for plant photoperiod and photomorphology.
Traditional artificial light sources generate too much heat, such as with LED supplemental lighting and hydroponic systems, air can be recycled, excess heat and moisture can be removed, and electrical energy is efficiently converted into effective photosynthetic radiation, which is ultimately converted into plant matter.
Studies have shown that the use of LED lighting can increase the growth rate and photosynthetic rate of lettuce by more than 20%, and it is feasible to use LED grow lights in plant factories.
The study found that compared with fluorescent lamps, the mixed-wavelength LED light source can significantly promote the growth and development of spinach, radish and lettuce, and improve the morphological indicators; it can maximize the bioaccumulation of sugar beet, and the accumulation of betalain in hairy roots is the most significant, and produced the highest sugar and starch accumulation in hairy roots.
Compared with metal halide lamps, the anatomical morphology of stems and leaves of pepper and perilla plants grown under LEDs with wavelengths changed significantly, and with the increase of outdoor LED grow lights density, the photosynthetic rate of plants increased. Composite wavelength LEDs can cause an increase in the number of stomata in marigold and sage plants.
Certain wavelengths of LEDs can affect the flowering time, quality and duration of a plant's flowering.
Certain wavelengths of LEDs can increase the number of flower buds and flowering of plants; certain wavelengths of LED grow lights for herbs can reduce the flower formation response, regulate the length of the pedicel and the flowering period, which is conducive to the production and marketing of cut flowers. It can be seen that the flowering and subsequent growth of plants can be regulated by LED regulation.
Establishing a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is the fundamental way to solve the problem of long-term manned space life support. The cultivation of higher plants is an important element of CELSS, and one of the keys is lighting.
Based on the special requirements of the space environment, the light source used in the cultivation of higher plants in space must have high luminous efficiency, output light waves suitable for plant photosynthesis and morphogenesis, small size, light weight, long life, high safety and reliability records and no environment pollution, etc.
Compared with other light sources such as cool white fluorescent lamps, high pressure sodium lamps and metal halide lamps, LED grow lights are more effective in converting light energy into photosynthetically active radiation; in addition, it has the advantages of long life, small size, light weight and solid state, etc.
Therefore, in recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cultivation on the ground and in space. Studies have shown that LED lighting systems can provide lighting with uniform spectral energy distribution, and the efficiency of converting electrical energy into light required by plants is more than 520 times that of metal halide lamps.